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OSTEOPOROSIS – “POROUS BONES”

Osteoporosis –“porous bones” Often referred to as a “silent killer”, as the first visible sign is often a fracture of hip spine and forearm, osteoporosis ranks as one of the five costliest disease of aging after diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and heart disease.What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk.
Characteristics:
Bone resorption predominates bone formation.
Low bone mass.
Recurring fractures.
Occurrence:
More common in females than males, especially in post-menopausal women.
Approximately 61million Indians (50% Indian Women).
Treatment
Diet:
Good nutrition is important to keep bones strong and healthy. Nutrition is an important modifiable factor influences peak bone mass. 4 main nutrients are involved in bone formation- calcium, salt, protein and vitamin D.
Sources of calcium
Richest source (animal)- MilkPlant sources – amaranth (cholai), Fenugreek, Ragi (richest cereal), Rajkeera (pseudo cereal), Soyabean, Rajma. Besides this almond(badam), dried beans, green leafy vegetables, fortified foods like orange juice and soyaproducts also are a good source of calcium.
“Role of nutrition in post menopausal osteoporosis has been nutritional research’s most difficult puzzles”- Prof Harold.H. Draper
Calcium supplements: Various calcium supplements are manufactured by the pharmaceutical companies. But their absorption from digestive system is variable. Hence, there is much emphasis on proper nutrition for management of osteoporosis.
% absorbable Calcium
Calcium carbonate 40%
Calcium citrate 21%
Calcium lactate 13%
Calcium gluconate 9%

 

 

FRACTURE HEALING

Proteins:
Protein deficiency causes delay in healing of fracturesand rate of formation of tissue protein will be very slow. Hence protein requirement should be of high nutritive value and 3 to 4 times of normal requirement.Vitamin D:
Essential for healing fractures and formation of new bone. Hence diet should be supplemented daily with 1000I.U. of vitamin D till fracture is healed.Calcium Salt: 
Diet supplemented with 1g calcium phosphateVitamin C: 
Role in healing fracturesRDA -1g/d in adults
0.5g/d in children below 10 yearsCalories: 
Since patient is confined to bed their calorie requirement will be slightly less than a sedentary worker (1875Kcal/d).Without adequate protein intake rate of synthesis of tissue protein from dietary calorie and healing of fractures will be slow, hence calorie intake is increased to 1.5 times normal requirement.
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